MPs who oppose the redefinition of marriage have said the battle against the Bill is far from over.
The Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Bill will now be considered by a committee of MPs, before a likely showdown in the House of Lords.
David Burrowes MP led opposition to the Bill in the Commons and is expected to be on the committee.
He said he would be “constructive” as he sought amendments, but added, “I am in it to win it.”
There will be more votes in the Commons before the Bill reaches the Lords later this year.
The Government is reported to be nervous about the looming battle in the Lords, one minister admitted: “We are expecting problems”.
The strength of the “no” vote in the Commons earlier this week surprised many inside Westminster and it could embolden the Lords to vote against the Bill.
Mr Burrowes said: “We succeeded in one objective – sending a message very clearly and loudly to the Lords.”
The Bill is not expected to reach the House of Lords until May. Before then, the committee of MPs will hear evidence from supporters and opponents of the Bill.