The views expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of either The Christian Institute or the authors employer.
Gwyneth Evans comes from Northern Ireland and studied at both Middlesex University and the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. She is currently Head of History at Castle View Comprehensive School in Sunderland. Prior to that she taught History and Religious Education for four years at Norham High School in North Tyneside.
As with other
subjects, it is important to bring a faith informed perspective
into the classroom from the outset and adopt a principled approach,
encouraging our children to develop convictions so that they can
establish life principles while they are young.
The Oxford Dictionary
1989 states that History is a 'Continuous record of important or
public events. The study of past events, especially of human affairs.
Past events; those connected with a person or a thing. An interesting
or eventful past.'
is further supported by postmodernist historian Keith Jenkins:
a shifting problematic discourse, ostensibly about an aspect of
the world, the past that is produced by a group of present minded
workers who go about their work in mutually recognisable ways that
are epistemologically, methodologically, ideologically and practically
positioned and whose products once in circulation, are subject to
a series of uses and abuses that are logically infinite but which
in actuality generally correspond to a range of power bases that
exists at any given moment and which structure and distribute the
meanings of histories along a dominant - marginal spectrum.'(1)
mentions God: indeed both are characterised by today's secular value
system, which is opposed to a Christian perspective. An alternative
definition is to be found in Webster's dictionary of 1828:
an account of facts, particularly of facts respecting nations or
states; a narration of events in the order in which they happened,
with their causes and effects. History regards less strictly the
arrangement of events under each year, and admits the observations
of the writer. This distinction however is not always regarded with
What is the history of nations, but a narrative
of the follies, crimes and miseries of man?'
History is the
study of the acts of man in a fallen world, and further to Webster's
definition, it is how and why they live in obedience and disobedience
to God. It is the interaction of leaders, people and the environment,
and it is not cyclical or repeatable.
History is derived
from the Greek word for inquiry and in the 5th century BC, in longstanding
Greek tradition, Herodotus, who is regarded as the father of history,
recorded wars between Greece and Persia: what he had seen and heard,
supplemented by reading, and verified by inquiry.
The study of
history provides repeated, concrete demonstration of the character
of the Christian faith. Christians have the key to understanding
history because of the transcendental perspective afforded in the
Bible. The Biblical doctrines of Creation, Incarnation and Judgment
allow the Christian to understand the flow and meaning of history,
to know for certain where history is going. Christianity is ultimately
the acts of God in space and in time, with the acts of God in Christ
Many of us may
have heard the statement 'History is bunk' by the American businessman
Henry Ford. With this statement Ford dismissed the whole of his
history and his people and the rich history of his nation's past
and he bequeathed to many a philosophy of history that says that
really there is no use in history at all.(2) Many
history teachers may have heard their students question 'Why do
we have to study history anyway? It's all in the past!'
In today's climate
there has been a push towards postmodern revisionism and the emergence
of blind relativism and historyless hedonism, without any reference
theologian Mark Noll opens up the question: 'What can we know about
the past? About the shape and significance of the actions, thoughts,
institutional creations, assumptions, and intentions of those who
have lived before us? And how should we think about efforts to describe
and interpret the past? Given the nature of the human mind, given
the character of evidence linking our present existence with past
lives, and given the relationship of human thought whether past
or present to the conceptual framework provided by societies and
cultures as a whole, what is possible and what is not possible to
affirm about our knowledge of the past?'(3)
our ultimate, authoritative and inerrant framework of reference
is Scripture and we acknowledge that there are absolute truths and
values, which are God's overall purpose and movement in history.
In understanding the hand of God in human affairs the Psalmist says
in Psalm 78 v 2-8 'sayings of old: Which we have heard and known,
and our fathers have told us. We will not hide them from their children,
shewing to the generation to come the praises of the Lord, and His
strength, and His wonderful works that He hath done. For He established
a testimony in Jacob, and appointed a law in Israel which He commanded
our fathers that they should make known to their children: That
the generation to come might know them, even the children which
should be born; who should arise and declare them to their children:
That they might set their hope in God, and not forget the works
of God, but keep His commandments: And might not be as their fathers,
a stubborn and rebellious generation; a generation that set not
their heart aright, and whose spirit was not steadfast with God'.
This Psalm highlights that God is at the heart of History. History
is a story in which providence has countered human aberration.
The Christian History teacher's starting point is that God is a wise, powerful, holy, just, good and true God who has created the world and is not only interested in and concerned with it but intimately involved with it; all things are ordained at the beginning of human existence and right through the panorama of history. The world was created in time; man fell into sin; God prepared for the coming of the Redeemer, who was born, lived, died and rose again, so that human beings might enjoy everlasting fellowship with Him. As the Architect, Creator and Sustainer of nations and individuals His purpose in human history is that man should seek Him. He is sovereign over the universe and providentially cares for his creation, and works out His purpose for every person and every nation in the unfolding of history.
God has decreed His eternal purpose and has appointed what shall be in time and through eternity. Nothing can fall out in time to alter God's decrees, as this would suggest weakness. Providence is the backbone of the History curriculum. Nothing can happen that lies outside the reach of God's sovereignty; no experiences that the church has undergone, no matter how glorious or mundane, are irrelevant to the divine purpose. God has decreed to bring about His purposes in a way agreeable to the nature and liberty of free agents without any constraint upon their will, it being easy for infinite knowledge to foresee how they will incline and determine in every situation.
The true Christian historian acknowledges that God has determined human behaviour. God knows our ways, ordering the events of our lives, watching each step that we take, guiding and protecting; he is our guardian and father.
God is the Alpha and Omega
Chancellor of the German Empire from 1871 -1890, commented, 'The
statesman cannot create the stream of time, he can only navigate
it. The statesman must try and reach for the hem when he hears the
garment of God rustling through events.'(4)
God is the author
of history and superintends each step in the universe: the physical
world, the affairs of nations, and of individuals and families,
continually working out His purposes. The affairs of the nations
are under his guidance and control.
princes away spoiled, and overthroweth the mighty. ... He increaseth
the nations, and destroyeth them: he enlargeth the nations and straiteneth
them again. ' (Job Ch 12 v 19, 23) The world is governed by His
wisdom and not just by chance.
In the words
of the Westminster Shorter Catechism 'His decrees are his eternal
purpose, according to the counsel of his will, whereby, for His
own glory, he hath fore-ordained whatsoever comes to pass'(5)
This is executed through both creation and providence. God governs
and 'preserves all His creatures and all their actions',(6)
not even a sparrow falls to the ground without the knowledge of
our heavenly father and that all the hairs of our head are numbered.
1 v 11 says 'In whom also we have obtained an inheritance, being
predestinated according to the purpose of Him who worketh all things
after the counsel of His own will.'
R. L. Dabney,
who was Professor of Ecclesiastical History at Virginia said at
his inaugural lecture in 1854: 'The history of the church and of
the world is but the evolution of the eternal purpose of that God
who works all things after the counsel of His own will. Deep in
the secrets of his own breast is hidden the united plan from which
the pattern is gradually unfolded of the tangled web of human affairs.
As that decree is one so history is a unit.('7)
Those who say
that everything in history can be explained without bringing God
into the argument are doing no more than walking around in a circle
because God is the Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end.
A sense of history
provides the pupil with a correct understanding of their place and
significance in time. Study of ancient history enables pupils to
realise that we are not all there has ever been and modern history
helps to illuminate present day society.
of other subjects the history teacher is separated from his subject
by time and therefore a great deal of what has taken place is omitted
from history books. Our knowledge is dependent upon a variety of
written and pictorial sources, which can often be inadequate and
misleading and whose authors have their own agenda. There are vast
possibilities for historical error in any ostensibly accurate account
and the corroboration of evidence is certainly not conclusive. The
conclusions reached by an historian are dependent upon his values
and beliefs; no historian can avoid bias: this is demonstrated in
the selection or omission of evidence or material, which will produce
a version of history that will support his own beliefs.
in 'Christianity and History' says, 'The agents of history - those
who act and who witness actions, those who make and transmit records,
those who attempt to reconstruct past actions on the basis of those
records - are people with world views, biases, blind spots and convictions.'(8)
Regardless of any historian's conclusions, he or she is not an infallible
observer. We must be cautious because his or her view is far from
the complete picture. We can have reliable knowledge and real understanding
of the past, but this knowledge and understanding is necessarily
limited. A historian investigates and questions the past based on
valid evidence, therefore developing a critical mind. It is important
to challenge and interrogate evidence, as facts are not neutral.
Man is fallen and flawed and falls short of God's standards and
cannot possibly understand the whole of history with a finite mind.
In pursuing knowledge fallen man tries to relegate God, denying
his existence and regarding God's overarching plan as totally irrelevant
and even preposterous. Man sees himself as God and the source of
history. The Christian historian ought to examine evidence critically
and reach his judgement based on Biblical absolutes.
how does a Christian historian differ in approach from an unbeliever?
who sees man as the source of history will always look for the causes
of events. His modus operandi is to trace cause and effect.
The Christian historian on the other hand knows that ultimately God is the cause of all events.
led up to World War I could be attributed to the arms race, problems
in the Balkans, the Moroccan crisis and the assassination of Archduke
Franz Ferdinand. Was it an accident or God? Nothing happens by chance.
This is a point of controversy for those who do not believe in the
absolute sovereignty of God and his omnipresence and omniscience.
The Christian History teacher should present to pupils that as men
plan and work with only their own immediate and material interests
in view, there is a power who is unobserved overruling their actions
to the furtherance of higher, more extended, and more permanent
A leading American
educationalist Dr Carol Adams states, 'God's hand is seen in the
starting, speeding, retarding, and matching such coincident and
colliding influences as mark the progress and constitute the varied
crises of history'(9) .
While we recognise
that God is involved in all parts of history there are events where
His direct intervention is very clear, for instance in the Bible
we can take the example of the children of Israel escaping from
Egypt and crossing the Red Sea, and the provision for the widow
of Zarephath. Over the past 2 millennia there have been events where
apparent miracles have happened; human minds or strength could not
bring about the resolutions witnessed. For example at Dunkirk, half
a million British soldiers were trapped as they moved towards the
English Channel. Hitler ordered that Dunkirk be left to the Luftwaffe
so that the escape of the English forces across the Channel would
be prevented. British intelligence had intercepted Hitler's message
and an armada of little ships rescued the British Expeditionary
Force. Two days later Hitler changed his mind and the Panzers were
to resume their advance but heavy rain impeded their progress as
well as hampering Luftwaffe attacks. Over 370,000 men were saved.
is the battle of Agincourt on 25th Oct 1415. British troops were
heavily outnumbered by the French, and just before battle the battlefield
was completely drenched and battle conditions were dire. Humanly
speaking there was no way that the British should have won the battle
but the English bowmen massacred the French.
can be learned from different types of events where the normal course
of 'cause and effect' appears to have been overruled. Richard Baxter,
a Puritan, lived through the Restoration of 1660. He was amazed
at the conduct of the army of the Commonwealth. It had conquered
three kingdoms, killed the king and dissolved parliaments, but it
quietly disbanded 'without one bloody nose' at the Restoration of
Charles II. Baxter commented, 'Let any man that hath the use of
his understanding judge whether this were not enough to prove that
there is a God that governeth the world and disposeth of the powers
of the world according to his will'.(10) Baxter
saw the hand of God at work as bloodshed had been avoided and there
was no renewal of civil war.
In the same
century The Great Fire of London wiped out the plague that threatened
to take the lives of much of the population of England. The fire
stopped the plague although the people did not realise why, and
Charles II instructed that a new city be built, so that the surviving
people benefited rather than lost. There have been other apparent
disasters that have allowed man to progress, for example advancement
as a result of the difficult period of the Industrial Revolution,
and the development of medicine and technology after the atrocities
of World War I.
Other huge changes
such as the Reformation had tremendous impact, sweeping throughout
most of Europe. The Reformation accelerated change. It taught, applied
and developed the ideas of democracy. God used individuals such
as Martin Luther and John Calvin who have had a huge influence on
society in government as well as religion. A salutary lesson to
be learned here from history is that as teachers we should be aware
that God may use even our pupils mightily in society.
The marks of God's intervention in the affairs of men cannot be erased; their effects have resounded down through the corridors of time, and having taken place, willcontinue to have effects.
to pinpoint the hand of God in human affairs, however, we may be
guilty of presumption, of professing to know the mind of God. God's
thoughts are not our thoughts, neither are our ways His Way (Isaiah
Ch 55 v 8-9). Asserting that God has intervened to rescue one particular
side in certain historical events may lead to the belief that Christians
can discern God's judgement in such events and to the claim that
earthly success reveals God's favour, while defeat or failure represents
God's judgement. This would be a complete fallacy. Whatever we might
like to think we cannot say that God is an Englishman or even an
Ulsterman! God in his wisdom permits events and their outcomes so
that He will be glorified and individuals drawn to Him.
Earthly victory should not be seen as a sign of God's favour nor earthly failure as representing his judgement. Indeed it is clear that this is not the case as many historians would use the issue of suffering to question the doctrine of providence. They cannot understand why a God of love would permit pain and trouble or allow the wicked to prosper. God has revealed a law for man to follow; if that law is not followed man himself is responsible. God's holy hand limits, and restrains men and directs them to holy and wise ends. God uses all human acts including sinful acts to fulfil his purposes so that men will turn to God. There is no greater example in history than God's designing the crucifixion of Christ from eternity, and bringing the greatest good to mankind, though this does not provide an excuse for the wicked part that the Jews acted in it, as it was their own voluntary deed. Christ's suffering achieved victory over death.
Acts Ch 2 v 23 'Him, being delivered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, ye have taken, and by wicked hands have crucified and slain'.
We have seen that God ordains all things, but man is responsible if he breaks God's law. Human wilfulness does not stop God from directing all events. Everything that happens is permitted. Joseph comforted his brothers after his father's death and they feared for their future:
'Fear not: for am I in the place of God? ye thought evil against me; but God meant it unto good' (Gen Ch 50 v 19 & 20).
Joseph was of a greater blessing to his family than he otherwise could have been. God brings good out of evil and promotes the designs of his providence even by the sins of men.
Romans Ch 8 v 28 'All things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are called according to his purpose.'
In His infinite
wisdom he overrules events and directs the chain of them so that
He is honoured, to help men discover the deceitfulness of their
own hearts and to make them more watchful. God is in control. Man
cannot thwart or limit God's sovereign will for the salvation of
his people and in dealing with his enemies.
There are human acts throughout history that we find it hard to understand in the light of God's providence such as the Holocaust. For such situations we can gain a measure of understanding through Scripture but must believe that 'the secret things belong unto the Lord our God: but those things which are revealed belong unto us and to our children for ever, that we may do all the words of this law'. (Deuteronomy Ch 29 v 29)
We need to trust
that God is in control of human history even if we cannot always
see that control. God does not owe us an explanation for what He
does and there are many things He has not revealed to us. For instance
Genesis 3 does not explain where Satan came from or why He was allowed
to tempt Eve. Even in the book of Job our questions are not answered.
Job has to learn to humble himself and bow before sovereign wisdom.
Paul in Romans Ch 3 v 1-8 rebuts the charge that God is unjust,
rebuking the questioner; He declares and vindicates God's justice
We must remember that much suffering is caused by human sin. Scripture gives us new historical perspectives; we are not merely told to accept the above argument. God has revealed how he vindicates his goodness. The books of Job and Psalms contain laments about the prevalence of evil. The twin themes of God's justice and mercy run throughout the Old Testament. In the same way that Old Testament saints waited for the Messiah to deal with the problem of evil, so we must wait in faith for the Parousia (Second Coming), when evil will be dealt with finally. The death and resurrection of Christ assure us that evil has been dealt with definitively and we now await the consummation of all things. Psalms 37 and 73 remind us that the wicked will not always flourish. In glory we will not doubt the justice of God's ways, whether we get a complete answer to all our intellectual questions or not.
The best answer
we have to the problem of evil and the consequent human suffering
is not a philosophical one, but is the incarnation, life, death,
resurrection and return of Jesus Christ. God in his wisdom has not
only allowed the existence of evil, but has dealt with it at great
cost to Himself. It is from this perspective of faith in the absolute
truth, this position of certainty, that we can begin to understand
God's perfect plan and also deal with current influences and strands
of historical thought which influence our texts.
seen in the Marxist, Cyclical, Historicist and Progressive interpretations
of history, has influenced key documents such as the National Curriculum
and Examination Syllabuses for History as well as the key texts
used in the classroom. What are these interpretations?
- the human process is created by man as he labours to satisfy his
basic needs and history is therefore based around historical materialism.
Marxism sees history as a class struggle.
- history is a pattern of cycles and follows a cyclical paradigm
of society rising and falling. The belief is that there is nothing
new to witness in the past or to come; this is very popular in the
East and supports the idea of reincarnation. The New Age movement
would hold to this view.
- different cultures are moulded by history and the historian's
task is to understand these cultures through empathy.
Progressive - instead of seeing God as the guide of history, people are normally seen as the sole agents. Progress can be made; as one of the school's leading exponents Condorcet put it man is 'emancipated from his shackles, released from the empire of fate and from that of the enemies of progress, advancing with a firm and sure step along the path of truth, virtue and happiness'.(11)
These are diametrically
opposed to the Judaeo - Christian position - history is not a cycle,
but a straight line. The historical process begins at the point
of creation and under God's sovereign hand will continue until the
reject metanarratives and grassroots solutions and over emphasize
content. Certainty is absent. Philosophies and ideals are seen as
truth and man is seen as being responsible for his own destiny.
In our postmodernist
age of cultural rootlessness, moral relativism, religious pluralism
and social disintegration, the contemporary historian questions
whether there is such a thing as fact.
curriculum is based on a process, which is personal, political,
and communal focusing heavily on historical skills rather than having
an overview. The framework and agenda excludes any divine aspect.
The current prevailing trend is to say that lack of proof renders
historical fact, if such there is, less relevant and that the focus
should be on the historian. The Christian historian believes that
it is possible to discern facts: they cannot be marginalized and
are integral. Any other thinking gives too much credence to the
interpretation of fallible human beings who superimpose their own
worldviews on history, and ultimately casts doubt on the veracity
of the claims of Christ.
The development of new social science subjects stemming from a postmodern agenda has resulted in the increasing marginalisation of history as an examination subject especially at GCSE.
History is compulsory at Key Stage 3 and then an option subject at GCSE and A - level. Over the past 10 years history has had to prove itself as a subject worthy of study relevant to the modern day, so in an effort to meet that so-called challenge the subject has veered toward a skills based approach. Melanie Phillips journalist and author of 'All must have Prizes' says,
'There has been a division between those who believe that the teaching of history had to involve transmitting a body of factual knowledge about the past, and those who believed that what the primary lesson children had to learn from history was that no facts were true, that everything was a matter of subjective interpretation - from which flowed the emphasis on imaginative empathy and source work. ..Empathy and source work meant children had to find things out for themselves instead of being taught - which meant local history took precedence over national or international events'(13) .
Phillips again comments, that
'Whilst it is important that pupils understand how to evaluate sources and acquire the skills of an historian, the danger is that the process becomes mechanistic and formulaic and pupils know very little about the narrative or topic other than what is revealed in the sources. So history is reduced to the use of their imagination and the application of doubt and its overwhelming message to the pupil is: there is no historical truth at all - the only meaning that can accrue to the historical record is what any individual makes of it'.(14)
contributes to an atheistic or agnostic point of view.
In the teaching
of history today the skills to be acquired include the acquisition,
evaluation and reproduction of information relevant to an understanding
of historical issues.
material and empathy can enhance pupil learning if taught properly.
Empathy should be used to challenge pupils to understand the motives,
beliefs and attitudes of people in the past. It is more than trying
to feel as they felt; there must be proper reflection upon the historical
context and this should be geared towards a conceptual understanding.
However to examine whether or not Cinderella or Florence Nightingale
were real people is futile. Source material must be taught in terms
of seeking to establish what has happened in the past, rather than
encouraging doubting everything and trusting nothing. Some may raise
the concern that children taught to evaluate historical texts in
this way will be inclined to see the Bible merely as a source to
be questioned without any necessary intrinsic truth. However while
we should seek to present the Bible as different and not to be treated
as other literary or historical texts, it is only by the help of
God's Holy Spirit enlightening the mind, that any reader can in
a true sense understand and appreciate its meaning. The Bible as
the divinely inspired word of God is living and active and can only
be spiritually understood by faith given by God.
Pupils' Lack of Knowledge
In any case
those who have adopted an entirely skills based approach and marginalised
factual knowledge are now realising that the product of this is
lack of awareness of the past. In a recent Osprey survey testing
children's knowledge and understanding, Hitler was leader of England
during World War II, Henry VIII had eight wives, Oliver Cromwell
fought at the Battle of Hastings 1066, and Queen Victoria was on
the throne during the Spanish Armada; 39% of those tested knew the
Romans were in Britain in 100AD and there was further evidence of
pupils' lack of knowledge in both national and international history.
In the current
climate the teacher is seen merely as a resource while the child
teaches him/herself. It is important that where the subject lends
itself, the teaching strategy adopted is one that allows the pupil
to understand the subject rather than one used as a modern technique
for the sake of it.
There has been
some political debate over what should be included in the curriculum.
In the recently
published National Curriculum for History the key knowledge, skills
and understanding include:
- Studying the more distant periods enables children to understand
that there is more than the twentieth century. Pupils must understand
the development of political, religious, social, economic and cultural
history over the last 2000 years
understanding of events, people and changes in the past
Curriculum can place emphasis on Biblical principles and teach pupils
to understand historical truths as part of God's plan, that the
Bible is the foundation for the understanding of history, that God
had a design and purpose in every aspect of history.
Most if not
all texts do not include any Biblical perspective at all.
The topics studied
have a strong British dimension, which provides a basis for teachers
to highlight the Christian heritage of the country and now gives
scope to consider the role played by Christianity in shaping the
spiritual, moral, social and cultural traditions in the 21st century.
the spiritual awareness of society for eg superstition, traditions,
fear of God & judgement
- 1750 - background to the Reformation and its impact in England
- 1900 - Opportunities for in-depth study of individuals such as
Lord Shaftesbury and Florence Nightingale can serve as a Christian
example and inspiration for young people
A European study
before 1914 -The French Revolution can be used to show the futility
of the revolutionaries in trying to set aside God, for instance
in trying to create 10 day week instead of the God ordained 7 day
A World Study
before 1900 - slavery and the moral perspective
A World Study
after 1900 - religious growth under the suppression of Communism
in Eastern Europe/Russia
It is important
that children develop a historical sense, some appreciation of the
scope and sweep of world history. We must aim to help pupils to
identify and recognize both the good and bad in human action. The
modern world is not the proper and correct culmination of all that
has gone before. History provides a moral framework, which will
equip pupils when arriving at their opinions on the past. As truth
has been abandoned the Christian History teacher has the opportunity
to present absolute truth and encourage pupils to see things from
a Christian perspective.
a wonderful opportunity to tackle information which stands against
the Christian position, unmasking the subtle philosophies of our
age; we ought not to be ashamed to confront these. Undaunted we
should present the truth.
Many pupils may blithely hold ethical values that are not founded on any Christian basis. We must encourage pupils to think critically and enable them to develop a consistent philosophy of life; their ideas should not be held in a vacuum but should be rooted in consistent beliefs about the nature of mankind and the purpose of society. We must provide children with a secure basis so that they have a critical awareness and clarity of thought to read and write discerningly in dealing with evidence presented to them. We should welcome and rise to the challenges and not simply sweep them under the carpet or ignore them. As C.S. Lewis noted ' the task of the modern educator is not to cut down jungles but to irrigate deserts'(15) ; the biggest obstacle is apathy rather than antipathy.
Faith and history should not be separated; they should be brought together. Faith should not be excluded from any part of our life. Jesus stands over history as its Lord and behind history as its meaning and before history as its purpose. The Christian historian has a confidence for the future. As time had a beginning so it will have an end.
'For now we see through a glass darkly; but then face to face: now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known' (I Corthinthians Ch 13 v 12).
We know the
sovereign God of history has equipped us to meet the challenge.
D. 'Patterns in History' Apollos 1979
Butterfield H. 'Christianity and History' Bell & Sons Ltd 1950
Condorcet A. 'Sketch for a historical picture of the progress of the human mind' (1795), trans. June Barraclough (London, 1955).
Lewis C. S. 'The abolition of man' New York: MacMillian Pub Co., 1947
Jenkins K. 'Rethinking History' Routledge 1991
Marwick A. 'The Nature of History' Macmillan 1989
Noll M. 'Turning Points' Inter Varsity Press 1997
Phillips M. 'All Must Have Prizes' Warner 1997
Sire J.S. 'The Universe Next Door' Inter Varsity Press 1997
Wells R. 'History and the Christian Historian' Eerdmans Publishing Company 1998
Willison J. 'An example of plain Catechising upon the Shorter Catechism' Gemmell 1885
Foundation for American Christian Education (F.A.C.E.) newsletter Vol 4 No.2 Winter 1993
Noll M, Christianity and the possibility of knowledge pamphlet p1
From age to age tape series, D Campbell Free Church Minister in Back Lewis
The Shorter Catechism
Jenkins K, p26
2 D Campbell
3 Noll M, Christianity and the possibility of knowledge pamphlet p1
4 Butterfield, p100
5 Westminster Shorter Catechism Q 7
6 ibid, Q11
7 D Campbell, From age to age
8 Butterfield, p4
9 Dr C. G. Adams, F.A.C.E. newsletter Vol 4 No.2 Winter 1993
10 Bebbington, p173
11 Antoine-Nicolas de Condorcet, p201
12 Bebbington, p17-20
13 Phillips M, p147
14 Phillips M, p311
15 C.S. Lewis, p24
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